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HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

The hospitality product or industry consists of tangible and intangible elements of food drink and accommodation together with the service, atmosphere and image that surround and contribute to the industry. The hospitality industry contains many of the characteristics of service industries with the added complications of the production process. It is the production process which is the complicated element as it focuses on the production and delivery often within a set period of time. The need to provide the appropriate environment within which hospitality can be delivered means that most hospitality businesses need a substantial amount of investment in plant and premises. This creates a high fixed cost/low variable cost structure. The variable cost in servicing a room are minimal although the hotel itself, particularly in the luxury hotel market has a high fixed cost. In general the financial break-even point for hospitality businesses often is reasonably high. Exceeding this level will result in high profits, but low volumes will result in substantial losses.
Hospitality services suffer from fluctuation in demand. This demand will fluctuate overtime and the type of customer. Forecasting business is therefore often difficult because of the mixture of patterns and variables which can affect demand, making planning, resourcing and scheduling difficult.
Hospitality cannot be delivered without customers, who are involved in many aspects of the delivery of the hospitality service.
Achieving a satisfactory balance between demand patterns, resource scheduling and operational capacity is a difficult task for managers in hospitality. Managing customer demand to achieve optimum volume at maximum value is extremely complex. Too few customers could mean the required capacity or resources, often means that the customers experience suffers leading to dissatisfaction. Scheduling of resources is also difficult. If too many staff are on duty to cover the forecast demand, then profitability suffers. Insufficient staffing creates problems, with servicing and staff morale.
Forecasting is therefore a crucial function which contributes to the successful operation of the hospitality business.
The ability to deliver a consistent product to every customer is also an important consideration. Staff must be trained in teams to deliver a consistent standard of product and service. This means been able to cater not just for individual customers but to the needs of many different groups of customers all with slightly different requirements.
The success of any customer experience will be determined at the interaction between the customer and the service provider.
The service staff have an additional part to play in serving the customer. They are important in the future selling process, they should be trained to use the opportunity to generate additional revenue. From this analysis we are able to identify four characteristics of the hospitality industry which make it a unique operation.
HOSPITALITY ARE IN THREE FOLD:
Provision of accommodation
Food preparation servicing and management
Catering indoor and outdoor
Accommodation
People in this area provide comfortably service to customer. Mostly they are housekeepers in hotels, government establishment, homes and schools.
Food service and Management
Specialist in this area can work in hospitals, hotels, govt. establishment, institutions, airlines, ships, and resort centers i.e. as stewards, supervisors or catering officers or managers.
Catering
Caterers prepare and cook food for boarding institutions, hotels, hospitals parties or other entertaining occasions.
PRINCIPLES OF ART AND DESIGN IN INTERIOR DECORATION
Interior decorations is the art of beautifying rooms and other indoor areas of a house so that they become attractive, comfortable, and useful. Floors, walls and ceilings are often decorated using furniture and fixtures, carpets and rugs, draperies or curtains, lightning, paint, wall coverings, hangings, flowers as well as many other items that may contribute to the creation of an interior that is beautiful. The principles of art and design are utilized in the careful selection of each item to suit the use of each area and the overall mood desired. The home is base for each family member. It should, therefore, be made as comfortable and attractive as possible for the proper development and relaxation of family members.
Certain basic principles of art and design are always combined in decorating every interior, whether it is a home, an office, a bank or an automobile. These principles include color, texture, style, form, pattern etc. each element can be used in various ways to produce a wide variety of effects. The way a person chooses to use each element depends on
a. The interior’s purpose,
b. The mood to be created,
c. The interior architecture or design,
d. How all the elements combine with one another, and
e. Individual taste.
COLOUR
Color is very important in interior decoration. It make a room cheerful and welcoming, or depressing and dull. Color can thus change the mood of a room. It can also appear to change the size of a room. For instance, walls painted a dark color can make a room seem smaller than it is. Such colors make the walls seem closer to the center of the room than they actually are. On the other hand, bright colors can make a room appear larger and more airy because they make the walls seem farther away. Proper choice and combination of colors can make a simply furnished room look expensive, while the most costly furniture will look cheap if color choice is bad.
To be able to make the right choice and combination of colors, you must study the basic color wheel, color triangle, and color harmony.
The Color Wheel
This is an arrangement of colors in a circle, like the face of a round clock to show how they are related. A color wheel consists of:
1 Primary Colors: These are red, yellow and blue. They are placed at equal distance (or equidistant) on a color wheel. Other colors can be obtained by mixing the primary colors.
2 Secondary Colors: these are orange, green, and purple or violet. They are obtained by mixing equal parts of the primaries as shown below:
Red + yellow=orange
Yellow + blue = green
Blue + red = purple/violet.
3 Intermediate or Tertiary Colors:   there are six intermediate or tertiary colors. Each of these is a blend of a primary and secondary colors lying on either side of it. Intermediate colors include red-violet, blue-green, yellow-green, yellow-orange and red-orange. They are shown in fig.1.  



Orange yellow Yellow green




Orange red
Green blue






Red purple                          Fig. 1: Color Wheel                                              Red blue
The Color Triangle
Two important colors, black and white do not appear anywhere on the color wheel. They fit into another world of colors by using a color triangle.
A color triangle has a color at one angle, black at another, and white at the third. If a color wheel such as red is mixed with white, the result is a tint – in this case pink. Red mixed with black gives a shade – in this case maroon. If red is mixed with both black and white the result is tone – in this case, rose.
A color from the color wheel can be mixed with:
a. White to make a tint, e.g. red + white = pink (a tint)
b. Black to make a shade, e.g. red + black = maroon (a shade)
c. Gray (i.e. a mixture of black and white) to make a tone, e.g. red + black and white = rose (a tone)
Color Harmony
Colors are beautiful by themselves. They can be used singly but two or more colors can be combined to produce a color harmony or color scheme. To obtain a beautiful harmony the correct colors and intensities should be combined. A poor combination produces a scheme that is clashing rather than beautiful.
Color schemes for the rooms of a house should be planned according to different color schemes or harmonies.



COLOUR HARMONIES


           

RELATED HARMONIES CONTRASTING HARMONIES
1 Monochromatic Harmony 1 Complementary Harmony
2 Analogous Color Harmony 2 Split-complementary Harmony
3 Accented Neutral Color Harmony 3 Triad Harmony
A color wheel or triangle may be used to find or build an attractive combination of colors.
Color harmonies or schemes can be grouped into two broad types. Each group can further be broken down into sub-groups as shown above.
Related Harmonies
Harmonies of related colors usually produce restful interior or costumes in clothing because of their unity. They include:
A. Monochromatic Color Harmony: it is the simplest color scheme. It makes use of variations or values of the same color.
B. Analogous or Adjacent Harmony: this is obtained by combining colors that lie next or adjacent to each other on the color wheel, e.g. yellows and oranges, or blues and greens
C. Accented Neutral Harmony: this uses a color triangle. In the color triangle, the colors in a straight line form pleasing combinations. See Fig.2.
A pure color, e.g. red, harmonizes with the following:
a. Its tint and white
b. Its shade and black
c. Its tone and gray.
A tint and a tone blend with black. A shade and a tone combine well with white.
Contrasting Harmonies
A. Complementary Harmony: this combines colors that lie opposite one another on the color wheel, e.g. yellow and violet/purple. Complementary color combinations should be developed very carefully, because such color make each other look much brighter. A large area of one color and a small area of its complement is good. An equal amount of each of two complementary colors is usually jarring or dashing, unless relieved by a large amount of neutral tones, e.g. bright blue and orange may be attractive as accents to a white a background.
B. Split-Complementary Harmony: here a color is combined with colors that lie on each side of its complement on the color wheel. To create a split-complementary harmony with yellow, for instance, first find its true complements which is violet or purple. Then take the colors on each side of violet, which is blue-violet or red-violet.
C. Triad harmony: this combines three colors that lie equally distant from each other on the color wheel, e.g. the primary colors, red, yellow, and blue; and orange, green and violet. Color harmonies or schemes in a home should be created to suit the tastes of the persons using specific rooms.
Guidelines for Color Distribution in Interior Decoration
Effective distribution of various colors throughout an interior is just as important to the decoration as the choice of the colors. For effective distribution:
1 Use very bright colors in small amounts or areas. Some colors seem beautiful in small amounts, but may lose their appeal or beauty on a large expanse of wall or on large furnishings. For instance, a small area of contrasting scheme of red and blue can be used beautifully to add interest to a basically monochromatic color harmony.
2 Test color samples in the type of light the room has. This is necessary because colors do not appear the same in daylight as in artificial light.
3 Use color distribution to emphasize or deemphasize the interior architecture or design, the furniture or other features of an interior.
A person can emphasize the furnishing more than the style or design of a room by painting the walls a neutral shade, e.g. white or cream. Such walls reflect and emphasize the colors used in the furnishings, curtains, floor coverings and accessories.
STYLE
Style is an element of art or design. It refers to the mood created by the combination of all the items in a room or interior. Style also refers to the different types of furnishings and designs of buildings developed during a particular period, e.g. traditional and modern styles of furniture.
Points to Consider in Choosing a Style in Interior Decoration
1 The design or architecture of the area being decorated
2 The needs of the people using the area.
3 The traditional and modern styles.
   These maybe combined in creating a mood or style for a given area.
Do not try to imitate the style of any one period.

Form
Form is another element of art or design. It refers to the shape and the structural materials of an interior itself and of an interior itself and of the furnishing within the interior.
In effective interior decoration:
1 The form of the furnishing should harmonize with the form of the interior.
2 All forms in an area should harmonize with one another. For instance, in the dining area the form or shape of the chairs should harmonize with that of the dining table.
3 All forms in an area should fit the mood for the area and its purpose. In a home, for instance, the soft upholstered chairs in a sitting room are suitable for relaxation and viewing of television. The same chairs, however, are unsuitable for a library or study.
Textures and Patterns
Texture refers to the surface appearance or feel of items such as curtains or draperies, carpets, rugs, and other things used for decorating the interior of a room. We can feel the texture of a material by touching it. Also when we do not touch things, our eyes can interprete textures.
Pattern refers to the design of those items used for decorating the interior, e.g. design on curtains and rugs. Pattern and texture are closely related. For example, patterns in some fabrics and floor and wall coverings give the illusion of variations in texture. Some textures, such as grained wood, create definite patterns.
Guidelines Underlying the Use of Textures and Patterns in Interior Decoration:
1 The amount and kind of use a room receives should determine the textures and patterns of furnishing. This is because slightly textured materials appear clean, longer than smooth-glossy surfaces. Also materials with patterns show dirt and wear less readily than plain or single-colored materials.
2 The mixture of textures and patterns of a room or interior should be well planned. Too many patterns with conspicuous colors are distracting and can become very tiresome. Interiors or rooms with too little or too great a variety of patterns and textures can affect people emotionally. For instance, a room that is entirely decorated with smooth textured white materials may bore people. Also a room decorated with an unplanned mixture of textured and patterned fabrics can agitate people mentally.
3 Texture that harmonizes with the color and light distribution of a room or interior should be used. This is because a texture affects color and light distribution. For instance, very smooth textures may reflect so much light that they create a mirror effect. But deep heavy textures absorb and distort light or reduce its intensity. As a result, a deeply textured cream carpet appears much darker than a smooth cream wall.
4 Textures and patterns should be used to emphasize or de-emphasize the design or architecture, furnishing or other features of a room. For instance, curtains covered with a bold pattern may be used to draw attention to a window area. Wood or marble floors can provide interesting patterns and textures that draw attention to the floors.
Different textures can be used in decorating a house, through the use of painting, curtains, draperies, carpets, and rugs.
PAINTING, WINDOW DECORATION AND FLOOR COVERINGS
In decorating a room, different types and colors of paints and paintings are often used. Windows and doors are decorated with curtains and draperies, while floors are covered with different types of materials, such as carpets and rugs. To select and use any of these materials, the principles of art such as color, texture and pattern should be considered.
PAINTING
A paint is any kind of preparation which dries and hardens to produce a solid, opaque, decorative or protective coating, when it is applied in a liquid form to a surface.
Uses of Paint in Interior Decoration:
1 To make a house beautiful by adding color to it
2 To protect the house from weather conditions, e.g. rain
3 Paints can be used to produce different textures such as a glossy, matt or rough textured surface.
There are different types of paint, each of which can produce different textures. Some of them are:
1 Emulsion Paints: Water is used as a thinner or solvent for emulsion paints. These paints are suitable for interior walls and ceilings and not for the external parts of the house. They are not suitable for the kitchen or bathroom as they would peel. Painted walls can be washed when dry.
2 Oil paints: These are hard-wearing and can be used on interior or exterior surfaces of the house. Oil-paints produce glossy surfaces that can be washed when dirty.
3 Gloss paints: These are tough and durable and give a high gloss finish. They are very suitable for painting wood and metal work both internally and externally. They are washable and good for windows.
Points to Consider When Choosing the Paint for a Room
1 The use of the room e.g. kitchen, bathroom, etc.
2 The persons to use the room, e.g. children’s room. Washable oil paints are suitable for         children’s rooms.
3 The size of the room. Some colors of paint can make a room look larger or smaller.
4 The color, textures and patterns of furnishing, floor cover, curtains, etc. to be used in the room.
5 The design or architecture of the room. For instance, painting the ceiling of a room a lighter color than the walls can make the ceiling seem higher than it is.
Painting one wall a lighter tint of color than that used on the other three walls can add depth to the room. The same effect may be achieved by painting three walls the same color and painting the fourth wall with darker color.

Points to Consider in Choosing Paintings for Interior Decorations
1 The color of the painting should harmonize with the color scheme of the room.
2 The texture of the painting, (that is the appearance of the surface of the painting) should also be in tune with the texture of the other things in the room.
3 The type of mood desired in the room should also be considered. For instance, a painting of a weeping woman or child with a rough texture can create a painful mood in the room.
4 The use to be made of the room should also determine the types of paintings to choose. Each room should be studied from varying view points, shapes, sizes, furniture, floor covering, use etc. before choosing a painting
CURTAINS AND DRAPERIES
These are materials used for decorating our windows and doors. Fabrics are usually used for curtains and draperies.
Uses of Curtains and Draperies
1 They shade the room from excessive light or glare and wind.
2 They provide privacy for families.
3 They beautify the room by adding color to it.
4 They establish the character and mood of a room.
5 They can be used to cover special areas or items such as books stored in an open book rack or shoes in a shoe rack.
Points to Consider in Choosing Curtains and Draperies
1 The Use of the Room: For instance, the curtains for the children’s room would not be the same as those for the sitting room or the kitchen.
2 The Purpose of the Curtains: They could be decorations or privacy or both.
3 The Shape and size of the Window or Doors: These will determine the quantity of fabric and the style to choose.
4 The Texture, Patterns, Weave and Color of the Fabric: These should match those of the other items in the room such as chairs, wall hangings, etc. Draperies that contrast with the color of walls draw attention to the shape of the windows. Draperies that match the wall coloring help the windows to blend into the walls.
5 The fabric should also be of good quality that will not shrink, or fray. It should also hang well.
6 The fabric should be color-fast so that it does not fade easily, especially if it is going to be hung in a sunny place.
7 The desired length for the curtain should be considered. It can be floor length or window length. Floor-length is more graceful.
8 Consideration should be made as to whether or not the curtains will be lined. This depends on taste and money available.
9 The style of curtain to make should be considered, depending on individual taste. The styles for the window and door blinds should be similar.
10 The money available for buying the curtain is also an important consideration. It should, however, be noted that buying very cheap materials could be false economy, since after one washing, such inferior curtains may shrink, lose all their dressing, and hang on the windows like pieces of rag.
Materials that are boldly patterned and colored should be color fast. The materials to be chosen should be suited to climate of the place where you live. Heavy materials, such as woolen fabrics, are suitable for colder or temperate countries. They can keep out draughts and keep the room warm.
Cotton, linen, and some polyester blends are good for the tropics such as Nigeria. They help to keep the rooms cool.
Before making a final decision on a fabric for curtains, it might be wise to bring a number of samples. Tape them lightly to the wall in turn, then stand well back and consider the effects of each sample in the room.
Steps in Making of Curtains and Draperies
1 Choose the right fabrics.
2 Take accurate measurements of windows and doors. To measure, first decide upon the desired length of the curtain. This is usually called depth. The measurement should be taken from the hanging rail to either the window-sill or to the floor. Allowances should be made for hems. The width of the curtain should be the measurement of the window plus at least half as much again. This will allow for fullness and drape, so that the window is well covered.
3 Cut the fabric. At this step special care needs to be taken to ensure that the patterns are arranged properly. The fabric should be cut in such a way that patterns are made to match during sewing.
4 Sew the curtain. Sewing should be done neatly. All raw edges should be perfectly finished.
Lined Curtains: Curtains can be lined by sewing on another fabric against the wrong side of the curtain. The lining material will depend on the type of curtain fabric. Lined curtains have the following advantages over the unlined ones:
a. Lined curtains hang better.
b. They last longer.
c. They are less likely to fade.
d. They can make the room warmer than unlined curtains.
Hanging or Fixing Curtains and Draperies
Curtains and draperies should be hung with the right side to the room not facing the window or outside. This is because it is inside of the room that is being decorated not the outside. Curtains are best hung on rails. They should be hung in such a way that they fall gracefully to the floor. They can be hung on made-to-show decorative rods with curtain rings or hooks or tapes.
Curtains are also commonly hung on rods which are concealed by window heading or shades.
Others Uses of Curtain in Interior Decoration
1 As screen for bed in one-room apartment: this is commonly used by persons who live in only one room. The curtain acts as the room divider.
2 Screen for bookshelf and shoe rack: a curtained bookshelf or shoe rack should be cheap substitute for cupboards with doors. They can also be used to add color to a room.
3 Curtained bed: curtains can be applied to a bed. There it acts as decoration as a means of shading the user from bright light.
4 Shower curtain: this is usually made of waterproof fabric. It is used to screen off the bathtub in the bathroom in order to prevent the splashing of water on the floor.          
FLOOR COVERINGS
Floor coverings from a background for the rest of the decoration of a room. There are different types of floor coverings, e.g. carpets and rugs, mats, etc.
Carpets and Rugs: these are floor coverings used in homes, offices, hotels, etc. A rug is smaller than a carpet. A rug covers just part of a floor but a carpet covers the entire floor of a given room. Carpets can be fastened down to the floor with glue. Carpets are woven, but not all rugs are woven. Rag rugs can be made from scarps or pieces of cloth. Carpets and rugs come in many colors, patterns, and textures. They are very important in interior decoration.
Uses of Carpets and Rugs
1 They help to unify the entire room by forming a background for all decorations of the interior, such as furniture.
2 They add warmth and comfort to a room.
3 They reduce noise (e.g. from shoes) and protect floors.
4 They add beauty to the room
5 They help to set the mood for the whole room.
6 They can blend the different colors used in decorating the room.
7 They can add to the beauty of other furnishings of a room.
Guidelines Underlying the Choice of Carpets and Rugs
1 Texture and Pattern of the Carpet or Rug: Plain carpets and those with small patterns tend to make a room appear larger. On the other hand large patterned and brightly colored carpets tend to make a room look overcrowded. A patterned carpet shows dirt less easily than a plain one. Therefore, in choosing/determining the texture and pattern of the carpet for any given room you must consider:
a. The size of the room.
b. The size, texture, and pattern of the other items in the room such as chairs.
Avoid too much pattern on carpet or rug if the curtain (and wall paper) are already boldly patterned.
2 Color Scheme of the Room: the color of the carpet or rug should match the color scheme of the room.
3 The Quality of the Rug or Carpet: it is advisable to buy the best rug or carpet which your money can purchase. A good carpet will give better wear and last longer.
4 Underlays: a carpet should have some form of underlays. These helps to create a luxurious feeling and also to help the carpet to wear better. A thin-layered foam is often used as underlay but one can use other materials, such as old newspapers or brown paper or an old carpet.
5 If the carpet is to cover the entire floor of a room, that is, wall-to-wall measure the size carefully to avoid waste.
Before laying the carpet or rug, ensure that the floor surface is clean, smooth, flat, and dry.
Other Floor Coverings
1 Linoleum: this is available in tile or sheet form. It can be plain or patterned. It should be chosen to fit the texture, pattern, and color scheme of the furnishing of a given room.
2 Mats: these can be made of different kinds of materials, such as leather, raffia, coconut leaves etc. They can also be painted to add floor to the room in which they are used. Different types of mats are available to different parts of Nigeria. For instance, the Hausa mat, the Igbo mat the Ikot Ekpene mat, etc.
3 Vinyl: vinyl tiles or sheet floor covering are available in a wide range of colors and design.
FUNITURE AND FIXTURES
Furniture is a set of movable articles such as chairs, tables, beds, book shelves, room dividers, etc. used in furnishing or decorating a room. Fixtures, on the other hand, are structures that are fixed permanently in the room such as tumbler racks, book shelves and flower pot holders braced, mounted or cantilevered to the wall. Water taps and kitchen sinks are also fixture. Furniture and fixtures can be made to look attractive and decorative in a room. They are found in every room of a house, including gardens. They can be made of natural and synthetic materials such as wood, plastics, porcelain, etc. They are available in different colors, textures and designs.
Guidelines Underlying the Selection of Furniture and Fixtures
Furniture and fixtures are normally expected to last a long time and should, therefore, be selected with care based on the following guidelines:
1 The furniture or fixture should be functional and of good design.
2 It should serve the purpose for which it is intended.
3 The color, textures and pattern of the furniture should fit or harmonize with those of other items in the room where it is going to be kept or used.
4 It should be durable and comfortable.
5 Consider the following construction details:
(i) The furniture should be well-furnished.
(ii) The joints should fit properly and firmly.
(iii) The fittings should be of good quality.
(iv) Drawers should open and shut, smoothly and easily.
(v) Upholstered furniture should be well-padded.
(vi) It should have a good clearance from the floor to facilitate easy sweeping and cleaning of the room. Heavy, awkward furniture is not easily moved or cleaned.
6 Test the furniture for these construction details before buying.
7 The furniture should be serviceable i.e. you should be able to repair it when any part of it gets spoilt.
ARRANGEMENT OF FURNITURE
The most expensive and comfortable furniture will not, of itself, make a room look beautiful unless it is properly arranged.
Guidelines for Arranging Furniture:
1 Arrange furniture for an easy flow of traffic or movement in the room.
2 Distribute the furniture evenly, with the largest pieces on the largest wall expanse or space.
3 Maintain a regular line of height by balancing pieces on opposite walls.
4 Where possible, place furniture parallel with wall rather than across corners.
Furniture and Fixtures in the Sitting Room
The sitting room is one of the most important rooms in a house. It is usually a meeting place and a center of activities in the home.
Uses of the Sitting Room
1 It is used as a relaxation center for the family.
2 It is used for receiving and entertaining visitors.
3 Part of it can be used as the dining area.
4 It is where we often display or exhibit family pictures and other precious collections such as paintings.
5 It often the center of many family and social activities such as parties, meetings, watching television, etc.
The sitting room is, therefore, often the part of the house where we can have the greatest number of people at a time. It thus receives a great deal to tear and wear. The sitting room should therefore, be kept as attractive as possible. The furniture and fixtures in the sitting room should be comfortable for relaxation. Its furniture should also be well-finished and durable. Furniture and fixtures for the sitting room can be grouped into:
a. The basic- those that are very necessary &
b. The optional- those that we can do without.
A. Basic Sitting room Furniture Includes:
1 A comfortable Suite: this is made up of two to four chairs, a single three-seater settee, a coffee table and four or more side stools or end tables. The number of chairs, however depends on the size of the room, the taste of the family, and money available. Upholstered chairs are beautiful and comfortable, but expensive. Where they cannot be afforded, ordinary spring armchairs with removable cushions can be purchased.
Fabrics and wood for the suite should be of durable texture and match the other decorations in the room properly in terms color and patterns. If chairs are too high, they will be unsuitable for little children.
2 Side-board or cupboard: this is used for storing crockery, cutlery, and table linens. It should provide a good storage space. The drawers should be deep enough to hold the articles, and they should run smoothly and have well-fitting handles.
B. Optional Sitting Room Furniture
The family can do without these, but they could be purchased where the money is available:
1 Television, radio, stereo set, videotape recorder, and related articles – these are useful for relaxation, news, etc.
2 Room dividers and wall cabinets- these are additional modern structures found in some sitting rooms. When placed against a wall they are called wall racks or cabinets. But when it is used to separate the sitting room from the dining section, it is called a room divider. These structures are used to hold flower vases, ornaments, music sets, television sets, pictures etc.
The walls of the sitting room look bare and unattractive without some decorations such as pictures and ornaments to add interest and color to them.
  The sitting room also needs curtain and floor coverings which match with the other things in the room in terms of color, texture, pattern, and style.
Fixtures in the Sitting Room Include:
(i) Picture rails made of wood at the top of the walls.
(ii) Curtain boards (pelmets) – which are wooden boards made to cover the top of the window or door blinds and curtains. They beautify the room. The curtain rails or rods are fixed within the curtain board.
(iii) Fans, lamp holders, and shapes, etc. These can serve both functional and decorative purposes.
Dining Room
The dining room is the room in which family members eat their meals. In some homes, the dining unit is a part of the sitting room, in others it could be in the kitchen, yet in others it is a separate room.
Whichever is preferred, the following pieces of furniture are required in the dining room or area:
1 A dining table that is large enough for the number of people who are going to use it. (Family size).
2 A number of chairs that are of the right height for the table and the persons using them. They should match the table in design, texture, and color.
3 A side cupboard for cutlery, glasses, table mats, and linen, etc. Drinks and food stuffs can also be stored in the cupboard.
4 A dining room trolley can be purchased, if it is considered necessary and the family can afford it. The trolley could be wooden, or finished with brass or other metal.
5 A dresser is an alternative to a side-cupboard. It could be cupboard with a glass for the storage of such items as crockery. Normally has a decorated top for the display of ornaments.  
The Kitchen
The kitchen is the center for food storage, preparation, and service in the home. It needs to be well-planned and furnished so as to save labor, prevent accidents, create space, and ensure good health for the family. Different kinds of furniture and fixtures are found in both modern and traditional kitchens in Nigeria.
Modern Kitchen Furniture and Fixtures:
1 The kitchen sink with draining board is a common fixture in any modern kitchen. The sink can be stainless steel, porcelain of fiber glass. It should be large enough for the family. The draining boards should be at both sides of the sink. It could be made of the same materials as the sink or of wood. It can form a unit with the sink.
2 Kitchen taps are often fitted to the sink. The taps are best made of chromium, so that they can be easily cleaned. The hot and cold water taps should be clearly labelled. A hot water tap often has a red mark and a cold water tap has a blue mark.
3 The kitchen table provides a surface for food preparation, e.g. for mincing, shredding vegetables, making pastry.
4 The kitchen chair should be easy to clean and move about. It should be of a comfortable height for the worker.
5 The kitchen stool should be sturdy. It can be used to reach items stored in kitchen shelves that are out of the reach of the homemaker.
The kitchen chair could be steel or wooden. Where possible, the chair should match the kitchen table in terms of texture, pattern, and color. It should be of suitable height for the kitchen worker in relation to the table.
6 The kitchen utility cupboard or cabinet of about 1.20m high can be fixed or movable. The fixed or built-in cupboard is not very good under the sink as it is usually damp and may harbor insects, such as cockroaches. A cantilevered cupboard creates space and provides enough room for storage in the kitchen. The kitchen cupboard is used for storing kitchen utensils, such as pots, pans, spoons, knives, oven gloves, etc. The tops of kitchen cabinets can be used as working surfaces in the kitchen may be enamel, Formica, plain wood or stone slabs built into the wall.
7 The plate rack could be made of plastic tube reinforced with steel, tubular chromium-plated steel or made of wood, cantilevered above the sink. This is a useful fixture for drying as well as for sorting out the crockery.
8 The food safe is very important in the kitchen for protecting food from flies. It has a wooden framework covered with fine gauge wire. It is either hung from the ceiling or placed in such a way that the four legs are in bowls of disinfectant water, to prevent ants from entering into it.
9 Kitchen equipment includes large equipment such as cooking range, e.g. stove or gas/electronic cooker, refrigerator, deep freezers, etc. Small equipment includes blenders, grinders, cooking utensils, etc.
10 The kitchen should also be provided with good ventilation and light so that the worker or homemaker can see what she is preparing clearly.

A Traditional Nigerian Kitchen
A traditional Nigerian kitchen often has some basic fixtures and furniture. These include:
1 A fire place which can be fixed e.g. clay cookers, or movable e.g. a metal tripod or three big pieces of stones arrange in a triangular position on the floor.
2 A kitchen rack, which is often built above the fire place with bamboo or any other strong wood. It is used as a storage place for perishables such as smoked fish, pepper, maize, and other items which can be preserved by the heat from the fire place.
3 Kitchen stools, which are used for sitting while preparing food. They are usually very low.
Furniture and Fixtures in the Bedroom    
The bedroom should be made as comfortable as possible. Furniture and fixtures found in a bedroom include:
1 Bed: This should be suitable for the person using it. The framework of the bed can be made of metal or wood, or a combination of both. Whatever material is used, the framework of the bed must be given a perfect finish to avoid injuring the user.
2 Mattress: This should be comfortable. Mattress could be made of foam alone or foam with spring-interior. Spring mattresses are, however, giving way to foam because the springs become uncomfortable to the user as the paddings of the mattress wear off.
3 Wardrobe: This can be a built-in closet or a cupboard that is large and roomy enough for storing or hanging clothing articles.
4 Dressing Table: This usually has a mirror mounted on it and drawers which are large enough for storing minor body care tools, cosmetics, and small clothing articles such as handkerchiefs and underwear.
5 Comfortable Stool: this goes with the dressing table. This should match with the dressing table in design, pattern, and texture.
6 Bedside Cupboard: This can either be made as part of the bedstead or as a separate unit. When it is separate, it can be made to serve a dual purpose as a storage facility and a stool.
Fixtures Found in a Modern Bathroom
a. The Bath Tub: This can be made of iron covered with enamel or porcelain. The bath tub can come in different colors, sizes, and shapes. Colors scheme of the room.
b. Wash-hand Basin: This should be of the same color as the bath tub.
c. Small Bathroom Cupboard: This is often fitted with a mirror and fixed to the wall above the wash-hand basin. It is used for storing soap, sponge, tooth paste, tooth brushes, etc.
d. Electric Water-boiler or Heater: This is a common fixture in a modern bathroom.
e. Towel or Cloth Rail: This can be made of chromium or steel and fitted to the wall. It must be rustproof.
f. Soap and Sponge Rack: is also a common fixture found in a bathroom.
g. Shower Curtain. This is designed and fitted close to the bath tub to prevent the splashing of water on the floor when the bath tub is being used. It is made of water-proof material such as plastic sheets. It should match with the other fixtures in the bathroom in terms of color and pattern.
A Modern Toilet is Equipped with the Following Fixtures
(i) The toilet unit, which is made up of the toilet bowl, seat with cover and water tank with cover. The unit comes in different sizes, shapes, and colors. It is often made of porcelain.
(ii) A toilet paper holder for placing toilet paper.
(iii) A wash-hand basin could be available for washing hands after the use of the toilet.
(iv) A towel rail is useful in the toilet for placing clothes.
Other types of toilets are:
A. Bucket Toilet: This is now being rapidly replaced by the water-system toilet.
B. Pit Toilet: This is commonly found in rural areas. The pit is partially covered, leaving a small opening or “mouth”, which is provided with a lid or cover. A small hut is built over the pit.  
HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY Reviewed by DailyGgist_Official on August 19, 2018 Rating: 5

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